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Introduction
 

Poultry Development

Guidelines to follow bio-security measures in poultry production

The recommended bio-security measures should be followed and minimize the farming hazards are as follows :

1. Locational Bio-Security
The farm should be located at elevated and well ventilated site. It should be away from water logging areas rear by villages. The broiler and layer farms should not be established in close vicinity. The farms having more than 50,000 layer capacity should have separate brooding and growing facility.

2. Structural Bio-Security
The construction of sheds should be in east west orientation. The minimum distance of 150 ft. between brooding / growing and laying sector and 50 ft. between same sector should be maintained. Multi storied poultry sheds are not desirable. Every individual farm should be provided with fencing, wheal dip at main gate and foot dip a every shed door steps. The maximum width of shed in deep litter should not exceed 30 ft. The shed should be 2 ft. above ground level with pucca floor. A minimum over hand of 3 ft. should be provided. In case of cage system the maximum width of shed should be 22.5 ft. for layer house and the rows and tiers should not be more than three. The height of platform should not be less than 6 ft. from the ground. The provision of closed disposal pit or inserinator should be there which should be at least 500 ft. away from the operational area. The litter material disposal area should be away from the operational area. The feed store, feed mill, office, egg store should be away from operational area preferably constructed near the main gate. All the structures should have rat roof arrangement.

3. Operational Bio-Security
It is advisable to go for cage system of rearing than dip litter. Automated equipments should be preferred to avoid manual handling of feed and water ensuring the testing of feed ingredients / feeds at regular intervals must be arranged to check the microbial growth. The storage of feed ingredients and feeds should be done in a hygienic manner. Ensure supply of clean drinking water to birds if necessary use appropriate sanitizes periodic inspection of well, pipeline and tanks should be done to ensure clean water supply. Area specific vaccination schedule should be practised. After the sell of each crop from the shed through cleaning should be done by removing all fixtures, equipments litter dust, debris followed by proper brooming and burning. The cracks and worn out areas should be packed with cement mortar. Cleaning of vegetation around the sheds and spraying of bleaching powders 1 part and lime 3 parts around the shed must be done. Cleaning of shed and equipments should be done with water and appropriate detergent. Then thorough disinfection of sheds, equipments and farm surrounding should be done by formalin spray of sheds at recommended concentrations are advisable. Foot bath should be always filled with disinfectant. Vehicles entering farm premises should be thoroughly disinfected. The workers working in laying sector should not be allowed to brooding / growing or feed manufacturing sector. All the visitors inside the farm must be ensured to walk through foot path. The disposal of dead birds, litter and other materials should be done in proper manner. 

Some important tips on common management practices for poultry farming

To derive highest economic benefits from poultry farming certain technical and scientific practices should be followed by the entrepreneurs are as follows :

Poultry Housing

  1. Always select highland for construction of poultry sheds. Rocky and murram soil is also suitable for poultry but if there should be good water label. Avoid water logging and flooding near the shed. Provide separate sheds for grown and layer.

  2. The area should be well connected with approach road with electricity facility.

  3. Proper training and experience in poultry farming is highly required to start a farm. One should be mentally proposed to stay at farm for constant supervision.

  4. Provide required floor space to the bird as per specification.

  5. The construction of shed should be done in such a way that the end walls face east west direction and side walls in north south direction.

  6. Raising of plinth of the shed should be at least 1 ft. above the out side ground level. Provide strong roof and hard flooring.

  7. The over hang of roof should be 3 to 4 ft. to avoid entry of rain water inside the shed.

  8. The distance maintained between the sheds of same sector should be at least 50 ft. and 150 ft. between grousing and layer sector.

  9. Provide adequate light, ventilation and comfortable housing condition during all the season.

  10. Construction of shed should be done in such a way that predators cannot enter the shed.

  11. Try to keep the shed clean and free from flies and insects etc.

  12. In deep letter system always use dry and clean litter material (saw dub / paddy husk etc.) spaced 4 ft. thick on the floor.

  13. The litter material should be always kept loose and dry and turn the litter material twice a week. Wet litter material should be removed immediately.

  14. In cage system the droppings are to be covered with lime powder or 10% malathion spray twice a month to prevent flies.

Feeding 

  1. Always use good quality balanced feed for optimum production. Use starter fed up to 8 weeks age, grower feed from 9 to 16 weeks age and layer feed from 17 to 72 weeks age. The balance feed to the requirement can be prepared in the farm as per the specification.

  2. Store the feed ingredients in dry and well ventilated store. A wet feed may bring fungus infection.

  3. Use properly designed feeders and control the rats to avoid feed wastage.

  4. Provide adequate feeding space per bird as per the specification.

  5. Keep the record on feed consumption for each batch. A bird consume about 7 kg. feed up to 20 weeks age and 38 kg. feed from 21 to 72 weeks age. Excess consumption may be due to feed wastage, rats, low temp of shed or poor quality feed. Too low feed consumption may be due to disease condition, low quality, up palatability or due to high temp in poultry shed.

Watering

  1. Always provide fresh and clean drinking water and ensure water should be always available to the birds.

  2. Provide adequate watering space. Use properly designed watering equipments.

  3. Keep the wasters clean and avoid entering of birds inside the pot.

  4. Provide cool water in summer.

 
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